Prepa economique et commerciale option scientifique
The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory.
Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics.
Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century.
Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy. Chimie — Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
Chemistry is sometimes called the science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics, the history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to a set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism.
The term chymistry, in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in , in , Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word chemistry to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. More recently, in , Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of chemistry to mean the study of matter, early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians, Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didnt develop a systematic theory.
Greek atomism dates back to BC, arising in works by such as Democritus and Epicurus. In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon the theory in his book De rerum natura, unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments. Work, particularly the development of distillation, continued in the early Byzantine period with the most famous practitioner being the 4th century Greek-Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis.
He formulated Boyles law, rejected the four elements and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms. Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, the Scottish chemist Joseph Black and the Dutchman J. English scientist John Dalton proposed the theory of atoms, that all substances are composed of indivisible atoms of matter.
Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current, british William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. The inert gases, later called the noble gases were discovered by William Ramsay in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh at the end of the century, thereby filling in the basic structure of the table.
Informatique — Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. An alternate, more succinct definition of science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems and its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines.
Some fields, such as computational complexity theory, are highly abstract, other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. Human—computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in , in , Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons and he started developing this machine in , and in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer.
A crucial step was the adoption of a card system derived from the Jacquard loom making it infinitely programmable. Around , Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information, when the machine was finished, some hailed it as Babbages dream come true. During the s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, as it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general.
Computer science began to be established as an academic discipline in the s. The worlds first computer science program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science. The first computer science program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights and it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time.
IBM released the IBM and later the IBM computers, still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again.
During the late s, the science discipline was very much in its developmental stages. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology, modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. PE, Gym or Gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is a course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises.
It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health, pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, captain ball, and basketball during most sessions.
Unorthodox sports such as, fencing, and skateboarding are occasionally played, in more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests, students are graded by gold, silver, bronze or as fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.
In Malaysia, pupils from schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, netball, basketball, pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher.
In the Philippines, PE is mandatory for all years, unless, the school gives the option for a student to do the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme instead for fifth and sixth year. In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their physical education curriculum, in Indonesia, students ranging from Kindergarten to High School have PE integrated with their curriculum.
Starting from Junior High School, several games such as basketball, volleyball, cricket, tennis, badminton, kho kho, kabaddi. Several drills and physical training are taught, in Australia, physical education was first made an important part of the curriculum in Government primary and secondary schools in The policy was outlined in a Ministerial Statement to the Victorian Legislative Assembly by the Minister for Educational Services, in British Columbia, Canada the government has stated in the grade one curriculum that students must participate in physical activity daily five times a week.
Also the teacher is responsible for planning Daily Physical Activity which is thirty minutes of mild to moderate physical activity a day not including curriculum physical education classes, the curriculum also requires students in grade one to be knowledgeable about healthy living.
For example, students must be able to describe benefits of exercise, identify healthy choices that require them to be more physically active. Ontario, Canada has a procedure in place. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy 4.
Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology, modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base 6. Its signification comes from the lifestyle of students in classes preparatoires. The intensive workload makes students sacrifice their social life for the classes preparatoires years.
They spend most of their time studying inside and barely go outside. A very specific kind of CPGE is targeting technicians. The literary and humanities CPGEs are focused on a strong pluri-disciplinary course, including all humanities: Nevertheless, the students can now also apply for many other entrance exams.
However, both the first and the second year programmes include ten hours of mathematics teaching per week and also six hours of business history and geography, six hours of French and philosophy, and three hours of each language 2 languages in the "ECS" section.
The amount of work required of the students is exceptionally high. They consist of oral examinations twice a week, in maths, physics, chemistry, biology and earth sciences in BCPST classes , French and a foreign language, usually English, German or Spanish. Students, usually in groups of three, spend an hour facing a professor alone in a room, answering questions and solving problems. They are taken every quarter in every subject.
Students usually have one hour to prepare a short presentation that takes the form of a French-style dissertation a methodologically codified essay, typically structured in three parts: The student then has 20 min to present her or his prepared work so just one part of their work to the teacher, who ends the session by asking some questions on the presentation and on the corresponding topic. A student in a scientific CPGE who repeats the second year obtains the status of cinq demis "five halves".
They were only trois demis "three halves" during their first second-year and un demi "one half" in the first year. Some ambitious professors encourage their top students to avoid or postpone admittance to other prestigious schools in order to try to get a better school.
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